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Inhaled air enters the nose and passes through the throat, trachea, bronchi and eventually reaches the air sacs. Coughing happens to protect and clean these airways from foreign particles, mucus, secretions and harmful substances. It’s important to remember that coughing is a defense mechanism of body and that it is usually not a disease, but rather a symptom. Healthy people can cough. Sometimes it can happen for simple reasons, but it also may be a precursor sign to an important disease. It is one of the common reasons to go to hospital.
Cough happens as a result of the outbreak of the air, after taking a quick breath, with the increase pressure inside lungs through chest and diaphragm muscles. It can occur either voluntarily or involuntarily.
Some of the conditions that cause cough are:
Influenza and flu are diseases of the upper respiratory tract caused by viruses (rhinovirus, influenza, etc.). Symptoms are sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, muscle pain, weaknesses, sometimes accompanied by fever. While muscle pain and fatigue are main symptoms of the flu, nasal discharge is prominent with the cold. Coughing occurs during influenza and cold because of nasal discharge, the urge of clearing the throat and inflammation.
The duration of cough usually does not exceed 3 weeks. These are the most common causes of short-term (acute) coughs.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease accompanied by recurrent cough, dyspnea and wheezing. These symptoms occur in the form of attacks, there are periods where no complaints are reported between attacks. Cough is the only complaint of some asthma patients. Even though asthma cough is mostly dry, sometimes it may be accompanied by phlegm. Usually, asthma cough, which is more common in the morning, may increase in spring and fall.
If allergic asthma is present, allergen substances such as house dust mite, cockroaches, pollen, domestic fungi can trigger cough. If allergic rhinitis occurs, it may occur due to nasal discharge.
The duration of the coughing spells, the concomitant conditions, and the factors that increase and decrease the severity of the coughing attacks are very important in diagnosing the underlying disease. Coughs lasting less than 3 weeks are called acute (short term), coughs lasting 3 to 8 weeks are called subacute, and coughs lasting more than 8 weeks are called chronic cough.
Cough without phlegm is called dry cough. The most common causes are smoking, nasal discharge, gastric reflux, asthma and the usage of ACE inhibitor group drugs (captopril, ramipril).
It is a form of cough accompanied by phlegm. Healthy people may also have phlegm. However, an excessive amount of it is considered to be a wet cough. Cough accompanying phlegm may be the symptom for pneumonia, tuberculosis, COPD, and lung cancer.
When people with allergic rhinitis and asthma are exposed to allergens, coughing is triggered and the severity increases. The most common allergen substances are domestic dust mites, mold fungi, cat and dog allergens, and pollen. The effects of the allergen substances vary from person to person. These allergens must be avoided for the treatment of cough. Continuous exposure may worsen the cough and lead to persistent symptoms.
Psychological cough is typically in the form of sound that is similar to the bark sound caused by the urge of clearing the throat. The most important feature is that it is not observed while sleeping. If the cough is not accompanied by any other symptom, and after all the other possible causes of cough are excluded, then this diagnosis is given. It can be treated with psychotherapy.
Healthy children can cough 10-15 times a day. In children, some diseases that cause cough are different comparing to adults. In children, cough due to hereditary diseases is more common. Coughs lasting more than 4 weeks are considered chronic in children, unlike adults. The most common cause of short-term coughs is upper respiratory tract infections caused by viruses. If the accompanying symptoms of coughing are growth retardation, chest deformity, atypical facial appearance, etc., they may be an early sign of other diseases than infections.
In addition, it should be kept in mind that foreign particles may have been lodged in the trachea. Persisting cough since the neonatal period may be caused by hereditary diseases such as cystic fibrosis or congenital airway structure disorders. A long-lasting and suffocating cough may be caused by pertussis infection.
The most important point in the treatment is not to start antibiotics for every child with short-term cough. Families may be anxious about this, but symptoms will generally be relieved within a maximum of 4 weeks. If there are any additional symptoms such as an increase in the frequency of breathing, fever and other complaints, you should visit the doctor. Besides children with asthma, bronchodilators given orally do not improve cough.
In children with allergic rhinitis, if there is a seasonal increase in coughing, steroid therapies given through nasals and anti-allergic drugs given orally may be beneficial during the pollen season. Since cough is a defense mechanism of the body, cough suppressants should not be used immediately, and reasons of cough should be investigated. In order to prevent cough in children, no medication should be used without consulting the doctor.
In order to prevent coughing caused by respiratory tract infections in children, all vaccines in the vaccination program should be done on time.
There is a decrease in cough reflex in the elderly due to weakening of respiratory muscles and changes related to aging. Because the cough reflex decreases, the airways cannot be effectively cleaned from the microbes. In addition, since the cough reflex cannot work effectively, it is common that food and drink escape to the windpipe. Therefore, respiratory infections such as pneumonia are more common and these infections are more severe. In elderly patients, lung cancer should be considered especially in case of long-term coughs.
In the elderly, pneumonia and flu vaccines should also be made to prevent coughing from infections. Because of the frequent use of medications for the other diseases in the elderly, it should be cautious in terms of the side effects of the drugs used in the treatment of cough.
Since coughing is not the disease per say but always a symptom of it, the underlying disease must be diagnosed before the treatment. Especially long-term coughing can be a sign of serious illness. Therefore, cough suppressant drug should not be used before the cause of cough is determined. If the coughing spells deteriorate the quality of life, if the patient becomes tired and sleepless in severe conditions, the appropriate drugs can be used to alleviate the discomforts once the disease underlying the coughing is determined.
The most common cause of acute coughing is nasal discharge caused by viruses due to upper respiratory tract infections. This condition can be dealt with complementary treatments, without consulting a doctor.
They stop the cough by increasing the stimulation threshold of the cough center in the brain, drugs such as codeine and dextromethorphan. Codeine is a morphine-derived drug. It may cause drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and constipation. Codeine can be used at 10-20 mg doses every 6 hours. Dextromethorphan should be used with caution in patients with liver disease. Addiction effect is lower compared to codeine.
They act by reducing the sensitivity of cough-sensitive areas in the airways. These are the family of drugs such as levodropropizine, benzonatate, diphenhydramine, and oxolamine. Benzonatate may cause dizziness, difficulty in swallowing.
Levodropropizine can also be used in children, because it does not cause undesirable effects in the nervous system, such as morphine-derived drugs. Diphenhydramine is present in many common cold medications. The most important side effect is sleep. Therefore drivers should pay attention when using it.
Palliative treatment is the treatment that is used to relieve the patient but not to treat the disease.
One should be precautious as there may be significant diseases underlying the coughing. A doctor should be consulted. In diseases such as asthma, allergic substances that trigger cough should be avoided. In addition, smoking or being exposed to a smoking environment for a long time prevents coughing from getting better.
Cough may persist up to 4 weeks after quitting smoking, up to 4 weeks after stopping the use of ACE inhibitor drugs, up to 2-4 weeks for after upper respiratory tract infections, and up to 8-12 weeks after starting reflux therapy. Therefore, one should not worry when coughing resorption does not occur immediately after treatment is started.
In one study, cough suppression and vocal hygiene techniques performed in speech therapy programs, which were given in 4 sessions for 2 months, were found to be effective in reducing the severity of cough. These non-drug therapies called speech pathology treatment can be applied in patients with chronic cough problems.
In case of a foreign particle lodging itself in the respiratory tract, the person is encouraged to cough effectively to let the foreign particle out. If there is a complete blockage, the person cannot cough, the cough suddenly ceases. In these cases, an intervention from someone knowledgeable in first aid procedures may be necessary:
Coughs caused by diseases with phlegm such as COPD, bronchiectasis and pneumonia should not be suppressed. The body tries to expel phlegm and harmful substances from the body with the help of coughing. By interfering with the cough, the bacteria may be encouraged to proliferate excessively.
Since cough may sometimes be a precursor of important diseases, you should always consult your doctor before attempting to stop coughing. Do not use any herbal medicine without consulting the doctor.